Iris - this is the colored part of the eye which features the pupil in the middle. It controls the amount of light entering the eye so that the pupil closes in bright conditions, to let less light into the eye. The pupil also opens in dark conditions, to allow more light in.
Pupil - this is the round centre in the iris through which light passes through. The opening and closing of the pupil is often compared to the aperture in a 35mm camera.
Cornea - this is the clear part at the front of the eye which focuses light into the eye. The cornea has five layers. The outer layer acts as a shield to the deeper layers which serve the purpose of strengthening the eye. There are no blood vessels in the cornea, making it highly sensitive to pain. Contact lenses are placed on the cornea for visual correction.
Lens - located behind the pupil, the crystalline lens allows the eyes to focus on small details. It adjusts, becoming thinner or thicker. As we get older, our lens deteriorates preventing us from seeing in as much detail, which is why we require reading glasses.
Macula - located in the retina, the macula is a yellow spot containing light sensitive cells which allow us to see in fine detail. It is responsible for processing sharp images, giving us the ability to see fine detail so that we can have 20/20 vision.
Optic Nerve - a bunch of nerve fibers which transmit electrical impulses from the retina to the brain.
Retina - a layer of nerves lining the back of the eye, the retina contains light-sensitive cells called rods and cones. It converts light into chemical and nervous signals which travel to the brain through the optic nerve.
Choroid - the middle layer of the eye located between the retina and the sclera. It contains connective tissues and supplies nutrients to the outer retina.
Ciliary body - this part of the eye connects the choroid to the iris
Fovea - also known as the fovea centralis, the fovea is responsible for providing the highest visual acuity, producing the sharpest vision and the greatest colour contrast.
Optic disc - also referred to as the ‘blind spot’ or optic nerve head. The optic disc is a circular area at the back of the eye where the optic nerve connects to the retina.
Sclera - the white outer layer of the eye surrounding the cornea. It supports the eyeball and protects it against rupture.
Rod cells - photoreceptor cells located in the retina at the outer edges. These cells can function in low light and are responsible for peripheral vision.
Cone cells - also located in the retina, these light-sensitive cells function best in bright light and are responsible for colour vision.
Vitreous humor - a transparent jelly-like substance which fills the eyeball behind the lens.
Aqueous humor - a thin transparent fluid which provides nourishment to the cornea and the lens. The aqueous humor is contained in the anterior chamber and posterior chamber).